Saudi Arabia will triple its value added tax rate and suspend a cost-of-living allowance for state employees, the kingdom's finance minister said on Monday, seeking to shore up finances hit hard by low oil prices and a coronavirus-driven slowdown.

When pandemic came knocking we all knew that the economy would have to suffer in order to get back in order. Austerity measures are inevitable in such cases. "The cost of living allowance will be suspended as of June 1, and the value added tax will be increased to 15 percent from 5 percent as of July 1," Finance Minister Mohammed al-Jadaan said in the statement reported by the state news agency.

"These measures are painful but necessary to maintain financial and economic stability over the medium to long term ... and to overcome the unprecedented coronavirus crisis with the least damage possible."

In 2018, Saudi Arabia's King Salman ordered a monthly payment of 1,000 riyals ($267) to every state employee to compensate them for the rising cost of living after the government hiked domestic gas prices and introduced value-added tax.

About 1.5 million Saudis are employed in the government sector, according to official figures released in December.

The world's largest oil exporter is suffering from slumping prices, while at the same time measures to fight the new coronavirus are likely to curb the pace and scale of economic reforms launched by Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MBS).

The austerity measures being introduced come after the kingdom posted a $9bn budget deficit in the first quarter.

The finance minister said non-oil revenues were affected by the suspension and decline in economic activity, while spending had risen due to unplanned strains on the healthcare sector and the initiatives taken to support the economy.

"All these challenges have cut state revenues, pressured public finances to a level that is hard to deal with going forward without affecting the overall economy in the medium to long term, which requires more spending cuts and measures to support non-oil revenues stability," he added.

The central bank's foreign reserves fell in March at their fastest rate in at least 20 years and to their lowest since 2011.

Oil revenues in the first three months of the year fell 24 percent from a year earlier to $34bn, pulling total revenues down 22 percent.

"The economy of Saudi Arabia has been under a lot of stress. That’s why the government withdrew $23bn from the reserve in March. This is the largest withdrawal from the reserve, ever, in the history of the country," Ali al-Ahmed, a Saudi scholar and expert on Saudi political affairs at the Institute for Gulf Affairs in Washington, DC, told Al Jazeera.

The government has canceled and put on hold some operating and capital expenditures for some government agencies, and cut allocations for a number of its Vision 2030 reform programme's initiatives and mega projects with a total value of 100bn riyals ($26.6bn), according to the statement.